@jauhar123 | Posted 12 Jun. 2019
Pharmaceutical formulation is the process of mixing various chemical substances with the active drug to get the desired final medicinal product, which is called a drug mixture or a drug formulation.
A drug formulation is given to the patient in various forms like solid, semi-solid, or liquid. The type of the formulation, provided by the Formulation Development Services, the patient receives upon the patient’s age, *****, and health condition and differs for particular routes of administration.
Tablets: A tablet is disc-shaped and is prepared by compressing a granulated powder in a dye of suitable machinery. They are usually coated with inert substances such as starch to help them break and spread in the digestive tract of the patient. A lubricating material, binding agent, and flavors are included in the tablets to make them palatable. Enteric Coated Tablets: These tablets are coated with a material that does not disintegrate in the acidic medium of the stomach but dissolves in the alkaline medium of the intestine. They can’t be chewed but can be consumed only by swallowing.
Controlled Release Tablet: These tablets are designed to release the active ingredient of the drug in a certain amount over a specified period. Here, the quantity of drug released is gradual over the day and does not rely upon the pH of the digestive tract of the patient. Therefore, a uniform amount of drug is released at a steady rate.
Sustained Release Preparations: They release a fixed amount of drug over a long period. Hence, they improve treatment compliance by the patient.
Capsules: They can be hard or soft. Hard capsules have the drug in solid form, which easily gets dissolved in water. Soft capsules contain the drug in liquid or semi-solid form, which is insoluble in water and soluble in glycol or propylene.
They are more easily absorbed than the solid formulations and can be monitored by various routes like:
***** Preparations: They are easier to swallow and monitor medicines to children and old-age patients. Flavorings and sugar are mixed in some liquids to make them palatable. These preparations are available as solutions, suspensions, or emulsions and should be shaken well before use.
Topical Preparations: The application of a drug on some area of the body for direct treatment is called topical application. Almost all Top Dermatology Companies produce them.
Gels and lotions
Nebulizers and inhalers
Pessaries for vaginal administration of the drug
Creams and ointments for skin application
Sublingual and Buccal Administration: It is beneficial for drugs which are active in very low concentration in the blood. These types of drugs are administered as tablets under the tongue or between the cheek and gum and allowed to dissolve. In this way, the drug directly enters the bloodstream by bypassing the digestive tract and work faster.
Suppositories: They are used for drugs which are operated through the *****. ***** mucosa absorbs the drug and enters the bloodstream directly. This method is useful when a patient is unconscious, has difficulty in swallowing, or has nausea.
Enemas: They are liquid preparations for ***** administration. These may be used for topical or systemic treatment as well as for a ***** movement.
It is the drug administration outside the GI tract of the patient. Drugs may be inserted anywhere with the help of injections.
Intradermal Administration: It is where the drug is inserted into the dermis. e.g., Local Anaesthesia
Subcutaneous Injection: It is where the drug is inserted directly into the subcutaneous tissue or under the skin. It is generally for the drugs that cannot be given through the mouth. E.g., Insulin.
Intramuscular Injection: It is where the drug is slid into the skeletal system or the muscle. The system is highly vascular, and therefore, drugs with low molecular weight can pass through easily into the bloodstream by direct diffusion.
Intravenous injection: It is given directly in the vein and lets the drug act faster.